Tutte le novità di NBF Lanes

Grazie all’articolo di seguito, viene offerta una panoramica dettagliata sui meccanismi di interazione fra microbiota e una determinata classe di patologie epatiche. Lo studio prende in considerazione concetti e patologie che possono avere validità anche in veterinaria. 

Gut-liver axis: The impact of gut microbiota on non alcoholic fatty liver disease

  1. Compare a, P. Coccoli a, A. Rocco a, O.M. Nardone a, S. De Maria b, M. Carten`ı b, G. Nardone a,

* a Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, Federico II University of Naples, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
*b Department of Experimental Medicine, Federico II University of Naples, Italy

Received 19 November 2011; received in revised form 14 February 2012; accepted 18 February 2012



Aim: To examine the impact of gut microbiota on non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis.
Data synthesis: Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between gut microbiota and liver. Receiving approximately 70% of its blood supply from the intestine, the liver represents the first line of defence against gut-derived antigens. Intestinal bacteria play a key role in the maintenance of guteliver axis health. Disturbances in the homeostasis between bacteria- and host-derived signals at the epithelial level lead to a break in intestinal barrier function and may foster “bacterial translocation”, defined as the migration of bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes or other extraintestinal organs and sites. While the full repertoire of gut-derived microbial products that reach the liver in health and disease has yet to be explored, the levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver diseases. Derangement of the gut flora, particularly small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, occurs in a large percentage (20e75%) of patients with chronic liver disease. In addition, evidence implicating the guteliver axis in the pathogenesis of metabolic liver disorders has accumulated over the past ten years.

Conclusions: Complex metabolic diseases are the product of multiple perturbations under the influence of triggering factors such as gut microbiota and diet, thus, modulation of the gut mi- crobiota may represent a new way to treat or prevent NAFLD.


Grazie al recente articolo di seguito, vengono analizzati i rapporti fra microbiota intestinale e il sistema nervoso centrale ed enterico.

Annals of Gastroenterology. 2015 Apr-Jun; 28(2): 203–209. PMCID: PMC4367209 PMID: 25830558

The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems

Marilia Carabotti, Annunziata Scirocco, Maria Antonietta Maselli, and Carola Severia
See Ann Gastroenterol. 2016; 29(2): 240.


The gut-brain axis (GBA) consists of bidirectional communication between the central and the enteric nervous system, linking emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. Recent advances in research have described the importance of gut microbiota in influencing these interactions. This interaction between microbiota and GBA appears to be bidirectional, namely through signaling from gut-microbiota to brain and from brain to gut-microbiota by means of neural, endocrine, immune, and humoral links. In this review we summarize the available evidence supporting the existence of these interactions, as well as the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Most of the data have been acquired using technical strategies consisting in germ-free animal models, probiotics, antibiotics, and infection studies. In clinical practice, evidence of microbiota-GBA interactions comes from the association of dysbiosis with central nervous disorders (i.e. autism, anxiety-depressive behaviors) and functional gastrointestinal disorders. In particular, irritable bowel syndrome can be considered an example of the disruption of these complex relationships, and a better understanding of these alterations might provide new targeted therapies.


Il prurito origina dal rilascio, da parte di cellule epidermiche e dermiche, di mediatori che, legandosi a recettori specifici, stimolano le fibre nervose periferiche afferenti: Il prurito può quindi essere interpretato come dolore.

Come evidenziato nel recente articolo, qui di seguito riportato, il sistema endocannabinoide cutaneo è uno dei responsabili dell’omeostasi cutanea, indispensabile per il benessere del soggetto.


Molecules. 2019 Mar; 24(5): 918. 
Published online 2019 Mar 6. doi: 10.3390/molecules24050918
PMCID: PMC6429381 PMID: 30845666

Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System

Kinga Fanni Tóth,1,† Dorottya Ádám,1,† Tamás Bíró,2,3,‡ and  Attila Oláh1,*‡


The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has lately been proven to be an important, multifaceted homeostatic regulator, which influences a wide-variety of physiological processes all over the body. Its members, the endocannabinoids (eCBs; e.g., anandamide), the eCB-responsive receptors (e.g., CB1, CB2), as well as the complex enzyme and transporter apparatus involved in the metabolism of the ligands were shown to be expressed in several tissues, including the skin. Although the best studied functions over the ECS are related to the central nervous system and to immune processes, experimental efforts over the last two decades have unambiguously confirmed that cutaneous cannabinoid (“c[ut]annabinoid”) signaling is deeply involved in the maintenance of skin homeostasis, barrier formation and regeneration, and its dysregulation was implicated to contribute to several highly prevalent diseases and disorders, e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, scleroderma, acne, hair growth and pigmentation disorders, keratin diseases, various tumors, and itch. The current review aims to give an overview of the available skin-relevant endo- and phytocannabinoid literature with a special emphasis on the putative translational potential, and to highlight promising future research directions as well as existing challenges.


Grazie al recente articolo di seguito, vengono analizzati i rapporti fra microbiota intestinale e sistema immunitario mucosale.

I rapporti fra microbiota intestinale e sistema immunitario mucosale
Mucosal immunity and gut microbiota in dogs with chronic enteropathy

Nour Eissaa
Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Hatem Kittanab
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska-, Lincoln, NE, USA

 João Carlos Gomes-Netoc
Nebraska Food for Health Center, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA

Hayam Husseind
Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

Research in Veterinary Science (Volume 122, February 2019, Pages 156-164)



Chronic enteropathy (CE) in dogs is a chronic and relapsing immunopathology, of unknown etiology, that usually manifests with a plethora of clinical signs reflecting the underlying heterogeneity in its pathogenesis. Alterations of the mucosal immune responses and the gut microbiota composition are thought to play an essential role in CE. Similar to humans, it is hypothesized that the breakdown in mucosal tolerance leads to aberrant and pathological immune responses toward the gut microbiota, that in turn, may contribute to the severity of disease, at least for certain CE subsets. Therefore, in this review, we discuss some of the most relevantand recent insights microbiological and immunological aspects characterizing CE in dogs.


Il sistema endocannabinoide degli animali
The Endocannabinoid System of Animals

Robert J. Silver
Chief Medical Officer, RxVitamins, Niwot, CO 80544-0590, USA;

Received: 12 August 2019; Accepted: 6 September 2019; Published: 16 September 2019
Animals (Basel). 2019 Sep 16;9(9). pii: E686. doi: 10.3390/ani9090686.


Simple Summary:

Our understanding of the Endocannabinoid System of animals, and its ubiquitous presence in nearly all members of Animalia, has opened the door to novel approaches targeting pain management, cancer therapeutics, modulation of neurologic disorders, stress reduction, anxiety management, and inflammatory diseases. Both endogenous and exogenous endocannabinoid-related molecules are able to function as direct ligands or, otherwise, influence the EndoCannabinoid System (ECS). This review article introduces the reader to the ECS in animals, and documents its potential as a source for emerging therapeutics.



The endocannabinoid system has been found to be pervasive in mammalian species. It has also been described in invertebrate species as primitive as the Hydra. Insects, apparently, are devoid of this, otherwise, ubiquitous system that provides homeostatic balance to the nervous and immune systems, as well as many other organ systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been defined to consist of three parts, which include (1) endogenous ligands, (2) G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and (3) enzymes to degrade and recycle the ligands. Two endogenous molecules have been identified as ligands in the ECS to date. The endocannabinoids are anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). Two G-coupled protein receptors (GPCR) have been described as part of this system, with other putative GPC being considered. Coincidentally, the phytochemicals produced in large quantities by the Cannabis sativa L plant, and in lesser amounts by other plants, can interact with this system as ligands. These plant-based cannabinoids are termed phytocannabinoids. The precise determination of the distribution of cannabinoid receptors in animal species is an ongoing project, with the canine cannabinoid receptor distribution currently receiving the most interest in non-human animals.


Grazie al recente articolo di seguito, vengono monitorate le fluttuazioni ormonali fra cani e proprietari a seguito di un periodo di distacco e ricongiungimento: emerge l’evidenza dello stress da separazione da parte di entrambi. Vista la stagione, da ciò possiamo trarre il consiglio di portare in vacanza insieme a noi il nostro Pet!

Gli indicatori fisiologici di attaccamento nei cani domestici (Canis familiaris) e loro proprietari

Physiological Indicators of Attachment in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) and Their Owners in the Strange Situation Test

Morag G. Ryan,1,*† Anne E. Storey,2,3,‡ Rita E. Anderson,2 and  Carolyn J. Walsh2,*‡

Front Behav Neurosci. 2019; 13: 162.  Published online 2019 Jul 23.
doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00162 PMCID: PMC6664005 PMID: 31396061


Behaviorally, attachment is demonstrated when one individual maintains close proximity to another individual and shows distress upon separation. For 29 owner-dog dyads, we employed a modified Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test (SST) to investigate whether both members would show a physiological reaction to separation. Dogs experienced a series of separation from and reuniting events with their owners and were introduced to a stranger. Before and after the SST, saliva samples were taken from each dyad to measure stress-related analytes: cortisol (CORT) and chromogranin A (CgA). Dogs exhibited attachment behaviors toward owners as evidenced by more time spent in close proximity, more contact initiated and less time spent near the door, compared to episodes with the stranger. Dogs that initiated more contact with their owners in re-uniting episodes had lower CgA than dogs that initiated less contact, but their owners had higher CgA levels. Also during re-uniting episodes, dogs and owners spent more time near each other when owner CgA levels were low, owner CORT levels were high, and the dog had owner-reported separation anxiety. During the episodes alone with the stranger, dogs with higher CORT spent more time with the stranger. Finally, dogs’ initial CgA levels were correlated with their owner’s initial CORT levels, and dog final CORT levels were correlated with their owners’ final CORT levels, suggesting some hormonal synchrony within the dyad. As all owner-dog dyads were assessed as securely attached, attachment style differences could not explain variation in hormonal or behavioral results. These results suggest that dogs may respond to owner hormonal state and/or behavior and demonstrate that individual differences in responses to a behavioral challenge reflect the stress physiology of both dogs and their owners.


L’interessante articolo ricorda che nelle diete, il termine “naturale” viene utilizzato con molteplici significati, non sempre sinonimi di corretta biodisponibilità ed equilibrio, e come spesso i proprietari travisino il senso del termine “naturale” nelle diete.

Natural pet food: A review of natural diets and their impact on canine and feline physiology 

R. Buff R. A. Carter J. E. Bauer J. H. Kersey
Journal of Animal Science, Volume 92, Issue 9, September 2014, Pages 3781–3791,
Published: 01 September 2014


The purpose of this review is to clarifythe definition of “natural” as it pertains to commercial pet food and to summarize the scientific findings related to natural ingredients in pet foods and natural diets on the impact of pet health and physiology. The term “natu-ral,” when used to market commercial pet foods or pet food ingredients in the United States, has been defined by the Association of American Feed Control Officials and requires, at minimum, that the pet food be preserved with natural preservatives. However, pet owners may con-sider natural as something different than the regulatory definition. The natural pet food trend has focused on the inclusion of whole ingredients, including meats, fruits, and vegetables; avoiding ingredients perceived as heav-ily processed, including refined grains, fiber sources, and byproducts; and feeding according to ancestral or instinc-tual nutritional philosophies. Current scientific evidence supporting nutritional benefits of natural pet food products is limited to evaluations of dietary macronutrientprofiles, fractionation of ingredients, and the processing of ingredients and final product. Domestic cats select a macronutrient profile (52% of ME from protein) similar to the diet of wild cats. Dogs have evolved much dif-ferently in their ability to metabolize carbohydrates and select a diet lower in protein (30% of ME from protein) than the diet of wild wolves. The inclusion of whole food ingredients in natural pet foods as opposed to fraction-ated ingredients may result in higher nutrient concentra-tions, including phytonutrients. Additionally, the pro-cessing of commercial pet food can impact digestibility, nutrient bioavailability, and safety, which are particularlyimportant considerations with new product formats inthe natural pet food category. Future opportunities exist to better understand the effect of natural diets on health and nutrition outcomes and to better integrate sustainable practices in the production of natural pet foods.


Di seguito un importante lavoro di analisi puntuale e aggiornata rispetto alla fisiopatologia, diagnosi e trattamento clinico delle epatiti croniche nel cane, svolto dall’American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) nel 2018 e pubblicato meno di un mese fa su “Journal of  Veterinary Internal Medicine

ACVIM consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis in dogs

Cynthia R. L. Webster  Sharon A. Center  John M. Cullen  Dominique G. Penninck  Keith P. Richter David C. Twedt  Penny J. Watson

Courtesy of Wiley Online Library


This consensus statement on chronic hepatitis (CH) in dogs is based on the expert opinion of 7 specialists with extensive experience in diagnosing, treating, and conducting clinical research in hepatology in dogs. It was generated from expert opinion and information gathered from searching of PubMed for manuscripts on CH, the Veterinary Information Network for abstracts and conference proceeding from annual meetings of the American College of Veterinary Medicine and the European College of Veterinary Medicine, and selected manuscripts from the human literature on CH. The panel recognizes that the diagnosis and treatment of CH in the dog is a complex process that requires integration of clinical presentation with clinical pathology, diagnostic imaging, and hepatic biopsy. Essential to this process is an index of suspicion for CH, knowledge of how to best collect tissue samples, access to a pathologist with experience in assessing hepatic histopathology, knowledge of reasonable medical interventions, and a strategy for monitoring treatment response and complications.


A proposito di Leishmaniosi

La movimentazione di cani sul territorio italiano, dal Sud al Nord e viceversa, è da molti anni in aumento, grazie alle migliori possibilità di spostamento e all’evoluzione naturale dei costumi del Paese. Tuttavia questo fenomeno comporta anche delle conseguenze epidemiologiche che meritano delle considerazioni.

Ogni Veterinario è consapevole che la prevalenza e l’incidenza delle patologie, in Italia, sono diverse da regione a regione e ne siano un esempiole malattie parassitarie, tra le quali la Leishmaniosi, i cui vettori sono comuni soltanto in determinate aree geografiche e condizioni climatiche, ma i cani affetti sono ormai distribuiti su tutto il territorio nazionale.


Comparison of Standard Protocols for the Treatment of Canine Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area with and Without Zinc Oral Supplementation

Paola Paradies 1*, George Lubas 2*, Fabrizio Iarussi 1*, Donatella Pulpito 1*, Emanuele Pezzuto 3*, and Mariateresa Sasanelli 1*.
1*Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Italy
2*Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, Italy
3*Practitioner, Lecce, Italy


Successful treatment of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) depends on an effective cellular immune response. Zinc is an essential trace element for the immune system and in dogs with clinical leishmaniasis low serum zinc levels have been reported. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of zinc oral administration during treatment of CanL.

Eighteen dogs from an endemic area were enrolled showing clinical signs of leishmaniasis and diagnosed by positive parasitological and serological tests. Dogs were subdivided in three treatment groups: MA, meglumine antimoniate 50 mg/kg SC for 30 days with allopurinol 10 mg/kg PO BID for 7 months; MZ, meglumine antimoniate 50 mg/kg SC BID for 30 days with zinc 2.2 mg/kg/die PO for 12 months; MAZ, same as MA group plus supplemented with zinc 2.2 mg/kg/die PO for 12 months. Each dog was monitored for 12 months using clinical and skin scores and some blood biochemical markers.

Dogs in MZ and MAZ group showed a better and earlier improvement of clinical and skin scores in comparison to control dogs (MA group). Among few blood markers studied (hemoglobin, albumin, γ globulins and A/G ratio) dogs in MAZ group did improve and earlier than other groups suggesting that zinc improves the condition where allopurinol is also present.

The supplementation of zinc in the treatment protocol for CanL increased the serum zinc concentrations. In addition, preliminary data showed in group MZ and MAZ dogs a faster response to therapy and the elongation of the disease-free interval time.

NBF Lanes sarà presente al congresso UNISVET in data 18 Novembre 2018 presso Genova.
Argomento trattato: Neurologia