Scientific direction of NBF Lanes in cooperation with Prof. Sebastiano BANNI, University of Cagliari.



The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a long-chain fatty acid formed by a mixture of several isomers; two particularly active forms have been identified: cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12. CLA occurs naturally in dairy products and meat from ruminants.


The great attention paid to Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is due to the large number of experiments that have revealed several important biological activity of this long-chain fat acid such as:

Modulation of lipid metabolism

Anticancer activity

Modulation of the immune system

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In the ‘50s Hugh Sinclair suggested that many chronic diseases, particularly those in the Western civilization (cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic), were to be correlated to a relative deficiency in essential fatty acids.
The Sinclair hypothesis has proved to be fundamentally correct.
In the last two decades the essential fatty acids (EFA), for their importance in many body functions, have been the subject of great attention both from doctors, researchers, and the general public.
In fact the use of the EFA in medicine dates back to the ’30s, when they were used for the first time in the treatment of infant atopic eczema (1).
Despite their use were promising, they were quickly ignored with the advent of the topical corticosteroids.
Sinclair suggested that Western affluent populations, feeding diets with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids EFA, went to meet him to a decrease in the composition in EFA of their body such as to prevent the structural and physiological functions related to these fatty acids. Sinclair hypothesis, at that time considered ridiculous and without fundaments, in light of subsequent research has proved to be fundamentally correct (3.4).

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Leishmaniosis is basically characterized by an anomaly antigen response to an altered immune system function. It therefore seems logical to assume that the use of such immune-stimulant substances, either alone or associated with traditional medication, can favorably influence the outcome of therapy. The results show that both types of Leishmaniae are sensitive to zinc sulphate.

Notes on the biological cycle of Leishmania
The infection is transmitted by the bite of infected sandflies. The promastigotes (flagellates elements, extracellular) in the insect’s saliva, penetrate through the skin, bind to macrophages of the skin and spread in the reticuloendothelial system of the whole organism. On the surface of the promastigote there are two molecules that have a prominent role in engaging the parasite-phagocytic cells: a glycoprotein (gp63) and a lipofosfoglycan. They activate the way alternates complement. Most parasites are destroyed by the body’s non-specific defenses, some are rapidly engulfed by macrophages, where they become amastigotes (aflagellati elements, intracellular), which begin to multiply in intracellular vacuoles. The amastigotes are oval forms of 2-4 microns in diameter. The lysosomes of macrophages release the hydrolasic enzymes to digest the parasite, Leishmania but offer some resistance to their action. Visceral leishmaniosis in the affected cells are soon to meet death and release the amastigotes that are themselves engulfed by other macrophages: this cycle is repeated several times until all organs containing macrophages are widely infected with Leishmaniae (spleen, liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes). When a subject is infected point from another phlebotomist not yet infected, the infection is transmitted at the time when it sucks the blood, through the circulating macrophages full of amastigotes. In the sandfly stomach amastigotes are released in a few hours and intestines are transformed into promastigotes, 10-15 microns long plagued shape and 1.5-3.5 microns wide: the scourge measures 15-28 microns. After many binary divisions they migrate into the pharynx and in the buccal cavity of the sandfly, ready to be placed on a new host. The cycle time in the mosquito is ten-day.

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