Grazie al recente articolo di seguito, vengono monitorate le fluttuazioni ormonali fra cani e proprietari a seguito di un periodo di distacco e ricongiungimento: emerge l’evidenza dello stress da separazione da parte di entrambi. Vista la stagione, da ciò possiamo trarre il consiglio di portare in vacanza insieme a noi il nostro Pet!
Physiological Indicators of Attachment in Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) and Their Owners in the Strange Situation Test
Morag G. Ryan,1,*† Anne E. Storey,2,3,‡ Rita E. Anderson,2 and Carolyn J. Walsh2,*‡
Front Behav Neurosci. 2019; 13: 162. Published online 2019 Jul 23.
doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00162 PMCID: PMC6664005 PMID: 31396061
Behaviorally, attachment is demonstrated when one individual maintains close proximity to another individual and shows distress upon separation. For 29 owner-dog dyads, we employed a modified Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test (SST) to investigate whether both members would show a physiological reaction to separation. Dogs experienced a series of separation from and reuniting events with their owners and were introduced to a stranger. Before and after the SST, saliva samples were taken from each dyad to measure stress-related analytes: cortisol (CORT) and chromogranin A (CgA). Dogs exhibited attachment behaviors toward owners as evidenced by more time spent in close proximity, more contact initiated and less time spent near the door, compared to episodes with the stranger. Dogs that initiated more contact with their owners in re-uniting episodes had lower CgA than dogs that initiated less contact, but their owners had higher CgA levels. Also during re-uniting episodes, dogs and owners spent more time near each other when owner CgA levels were low, owner CORT levels were high, and the dog had owner-reported separation anxiety. During the episodes alone with the stranger, dogs with higher CORT spent more time with the stranger. Finally, dogs’ initial CgA levels were correlated with their owner’s initial CORT levels, and dog final CORT levels were correlated with their owners’ final CORT levels, suggesting some hormonal synchrony within the dyad. As all owner-dog dyads were assessed as securely attached, attachment style differences could not explain variation in hormonal or behavioral results. These results suggest that dogs may respond to owner hormonal state and/or behavior and demonstrate that individual differences in responses to a behavioral challenge reflect the stress physiology of both dogs and their owners.
L’interessante articolo ricorda che nelle diete, il termine “naturale” viene utilizzato con molteplici significati, non sempre sinonimi di corretta biodisponibilità ed equilibrio, e come spesso i proprietari travisino il senso del termine “naturale” nelle diete.
Natural pet food: A review of natural diets and their impact on canine and feline physiology
R. Buff R. A. Carter J. E. Bauer J. H. Kersey Journal of Animal Science, Volume 92, Issue 9, September 2014, Pages 3781–3791,
Published: 01 September 2014
The purpose of this review is to clarifythe definition of “natural” as it pertains to commercial pet food and to summarize the scientific findings related to natural ingredients in pet foods and natural diets on the impact of pet health and physiology. The term “natu-ral,” when used to market commercial pet foods or pet food ingredients in the United States, has been defined by the Association of American Feed Control Officials and requires, at minimum, that the pet food be preserved with natural preservatives. However, pet owners may con-sider natural as something different than the regulatory definition. The natural pet food trend has focused on the inclusion of whole ingredients, including meats, fruits, and vegetables; avoiding ingredients perceived as heav-ily processed, including refined grains, fiber sources, and byproducts; and feeding according to ancestral or instinc-tual nutritional philosophies. Current scientific evidence supporting nutritional benefits of natural pet food products is limited to evaluations of dietary macronutrientprofiles, fractionation of ingredients, and the processing of ingredients and final product. Domestic cats select a macronutrient profile (52% of ME from protein) similar to the diet of wild cats. Dogs have evolved much dif-ferently in their ability to metabolize carbohydrates and select a diet lower in protein (30% of ME from protein) than the diet of wild wolves. The inclusion of whole food ingredients in natural pet foods as opposed to fraction-ated ingredients may result in higher nutrient concentra-tions, including phytonutrients. Additionally, the pro-cessing of commercial pet food can impact digestibility, nutrient bioavailability, and safety, which are particularlyimportant considerations with new product formats inthe natural pet food category. Future opportunities exist to better understand the effect of natural diets on health and nutrition outcomes and to better integrate sustainable practices in the production of natural pet foods.
Di seguito un importante lavoro di analisi puntuale e aggiornata rispetto alla fisiopatologia, diagnosi e trattamento clinico delle epatiti croniche nel cane, svolto dall’American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) nel 2018 e pubblicato meno di un mese fa su “Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine”
ACVIM consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis in dogs
Cynthia R. L. Webster Sharon A. Center John M. Cullen Dominique G. Penninck Keith P. Richter David C. Twedt Penny J. Watson
Courtesy of Wiley Online Library
This consensus statement on chronic hepatitis (CH) in dogs is based on the expert opinion of 7 specialists with extensive experience in diagnosing, treating, and conducting clinical research in hepatology in dogs. It was generated from expert opinion and information gathered from searching of PubMed for manuscripts on CH, the Veterinary Information Network for abstracts and conference proceeding from annual meetings of the American College of Veterinary Medicine and the European College of Veterinary Medicine, and selected manuscripts from the human literature on CH. The panel recognizes that the diagnosis and treatment of CH in the dog is a complex process that requires integration of clinical presentation with clinical pathology, diagnostic imaging, and hepatic biopsy. Essential to this process is an index of suspicion for CH, knowledge of how to best collect tissue samples, access to a pathologist with experience in assessing hepatic histopathology, knowledge of reasonable medical interventions, and a strategy for monitoring treatment response and complications.
La movimentazione di cani sul territorio italiano, dal Sud al Nord e viceversa, è da molti anni in aumento, grazie alle migliori possibilità di spostamento e all’evoluzione naturale dei costumi del Paese. Tuttavia questo fenomeno comporta anche delle conseguenze epidemiologiche che meritano delle considerazioni.
Ogni Veterinario è consapevole che la prevalenza e l’incidenza delle patologie, in Italia, sono diverse da regione a regione e ne siano un esempiole malattie parassitarie, tra le quali la Leishmaniosi, i cui vettori sono comuni soltanto in determinate aree geografiche e condizioni climatiche, ma i cani affetti sono ormai distribuiti su tutto il territorio nazionale.
Comparison of Standard Protocols for the Treatment of Canine Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area with and Without Zinc Oral Supplementation
Paola Paradies 1*, George Lubas 2*, Fabrizio Iarussi 1*, Donatella Pulpito 1*, Emanuele Pezzuto 3*, and Mariateresa Sasanelli 1*. 1*Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Italy 2*Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, Italy 3*Practitioner, Lecce, Italy
Successful treatment of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) depends on an effective cellular immune response. Zinc is an essential trace element for the immune system and in dogs with clinical leishmaniasis low serum zinc levels have been reported. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of zinc oral administration during treatment of CanL.
Eighteen dogs from an endemic area were enrolled showing clinical signs of leishmaniasis and diagnosed by positive parasitological and serological tests. Dogs were subdivided in three treatment groups: MA, meglumine antimoniate 50 mg/kg SC for 30 days with allopurinol 10 mg/kg PO BID for 7 months; MZ, meglumine antimoniate 50 mg/kg SC BID for 30 days with zinc 2.2 mg/kg/die PO for 12 months; MAZ, same as MA group plus supplemented with zinc 2.2 mg/kg/die PO for 12 months. Each dog was monitored for 12 months using clinical and skin scores and some blood biochemical markers.
Dogs in MZ and MAZ group showed a better and earlier improvement of clinical and skin scores in comparison to control dogs (MA group). Among few blood markers studied (hemoglobin, albumin, γ globulins and A/G ratio) dogs in MAZ group did improve and earlier than other groups suggesting that zinc improves the condition where allopurinol is also present.
The supplementation of zinc in the treatment protocol for CanL increased the serum zinc concentrations. In addition, preliminary data showed in group MZ and MAZ dogs a faster response to therapy and the elongation of the disease-free interval time.